Before it had set up a robust Apple store repair infrastructure, Apple used to hand out "Authorized Service Provider" designations to independent stores around the country. Authorized Service Providers can purchase parts directly from the company and have access to Apple's internal service manuals. But, in 2010, as Apple became better equipped to repair a large number of phones, it stopped accepting new applications to the program. It has not opened them since. Meanwhile, an analyst estimated that Apple's in-house service team does about $1 billion worth of repairs every year.
Thankfully, car manufacturers can no longer decide which car repair shops can work on cars in the United States. But computer, smartphone, and electronics repair in the United States works much like car repair works in Denmark.
"Each manufacturer shall provide access to manufacturer's diagnostic and repair information system for purchase by owners and independent repair facilities"
That was landmark legislation. Though it only technically changed the law in Massachusetts, most manufacturers have decided to offer repair manuals nationwide, because it would be essentially impossible to stop independent repair shops in Massachusetts from leaking the documents online or from sharing them with shops in other states. And so now, in the United States, repair shops can pay $3,000 annually to become a Tesla Approved Body Shop (every car manufacturer has a similar program).This has obviously been a very good thing for consumers: Now, instead of being forced to rely on manufacturer-owned service centers, they can go to any independent repair shop, which has the ability to get documentation from car manufacturers.Electronics and the 'Right to Repair'While car companies now offer repair manuals to independent shops or consumers, electronics companies are not legally required to, and the vast majority of them don't. In practice, this means independent iPhone repair shops must learn how to fix phones by trial-and-error or by relying on third party repair guides from sites like iFixit.
Read More: How the Electronics Repair Industry Works
Replacing an iPhone screen is no longer a mystery because so many people have opened and repaired them on their own, but repair professionals who want to fix burnt-out LCD fuses and other esoteric and complicated repairs must either find pirated schematics online or have an advanced knowledge of how circuit boards fundamentally work to have a shot at successfully repairing one. It's also incredibly difficult for a small repair shop to turn a profit fixing less popular products if they have to guess-and-check each time they run into a new repair.
There is a massive grey market for smartphone components