Over the past year Kurdish fighters in Syria have managed to wrestle several cities back from the the clutches of the so-called Islamic State (IS). Kobane, a city on the border with Turkey, became a symbol of resistance when members of the People's Protection Units (YPG) managed to drive out IS fighters after a months-long siege.
But the battle is not yet over. Fighters are still defending the city across three major frontlines near the city, and are aiming to advance to other Kurdish regions.
Since July 24, the Turkish government also has been carrying out airstrikes against both Kurdish and IS positions across the wider region, as deep tensions between Ankara and the Kurdish minority threaten a return to a 30-year conflict that claimed more than 40,000 lives.
On Tuesday, the Turkish military said its planes hit 17 targets of the banned Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) near the border with Iran and Iraq. A day earlier, nine people, including five police officers, were killed in separate attacks in Istanbul and southeastern Turkey, which the country's government blamed on the PKK.
Yet Kobane's residents, who fled the city in their thousands last year, have started coming back with the hope of rebuilding their lives. However, 80 percent of the city remains rubble and streets are littered by empty shells and corpses yet to be buried. Many fighters are also restless to hold traditional ceremonies for comrades who lost their lives on the frontlines against IS.
The story of Kobane also highlights the power of resistance within both the YPG and YPJ (Women's Protection Units), showing the important role of women in this society and the conflict against IS, a group that targets women with repression and violence.
All photos by Maryam Ashrafi