Inside one of Egypt's polling stations. Photos by Amanda Mustard
For the past two days, Egyptians have been taking to the polls to officially pass judgment on the latest iteration of the country's constitution. As with most "yes" or "no" questions, there are only two outcomes. A "yes" majority would force interim President Adly Mansour to call for elections (either parliamentary or presidential) within a period of 30 to 90 days from the new constitution coming into effect. But, incredibly, there are no guiding procedures in the event of a "no" majority.
That might seem presumptuous, but, thankfully for the interim government, they have history on their side—there's never been a "no" majority for any constitutional referendum in Egypt’s modern history.
The new constitution is widely perceived as an improvement on the 2012 version, which was drafted under ousted President Mohamed Morsi. But it's not really all that different from its predecessor. Instead of starting from scratch, as was originally expected, amendments were made to contentious provisions in a long, drawn out process that finally ended with Mansour’s declaration of the referendum on December 12 of last year.
Despite the increased clarity about discrimination and violence against women, as well as a lengthened list of socio-economic rights, the draft still contains a number of articles that have worried analysts—like the one that could potentially weaken labor rights and freedoms—and maintains provisions that protect the continued use of military tribunals for civilians. Nevertheless, some are absolutely certain that the contents of the constitution are exactly what Egypt needs.
"I’ve read the entire constitution!" one man exclaimed proudly outside a polling station in the Cairo district of Shubra. "This is the constitution for Egypt. God bless Egypt and God bless [General Abdel Fattah el-] Sisi! I’ve written my favorite bits from the constitution here," he smiled, showing off a piece of paper covered in writing.
The bomb-damaged front of the courthouse in Cairo's Imbaba neighborhood
The opposition Anti Coup Alliance immediately declared their intentions to boycott the vote, worried that pushing for a "no" would somehow legitimize the incumbent powers and their new draft constitution. However, nothing resembling a boycott movement managed to work its way into the public consciousness. Instead, the "Vote Yes" campaign snapped up all the attention and advertising space.
By the first day of the vote, almost every lamppost along Cairo's major bridges was adorned with a "Yes to the constitution!" poster. And giant billboards tenuously connect a "yes" vote to the 2011 revolution and the June 30 uprising that led to the fall of Islamist President Mohamed Morsi. The message was clear: this isn’t just a vote for a constitution, this is a vote for the revolution and the martyrs.
The first day got off to a bad start, when an explosive device went off outside a courthouse in Cairo's Imbaba neighborhood, some two hours before the polling stations opened on Tuesday morning. Although no one was killed in the blast, it prompted an increased security presence—the worry being that there were similar acts planned for throughout this referendum period.
Despite the violent start, voter turnout for the first day was relatively high, with Egypt’s minister of administrative development claiming that 28 percent of the country's registered voters had cast their ballot that day alone. However, scattered fighting in various governorates turned deadly for some—the Interior Ministry put the death toll at 12 at the close of the first day's voting, and 250 were arrested.
Crowds outside a Cairo polling station with a poster of General Abdel Fattah el-Sisi
On state TV, multiple feeds from polling stations all over Egypt showed long lines, with everyone smiling or waiting patiently.
Outside a school in the affluent neighborhood of Zamalek, a mother and her two teenagers strolled out of the polling station. Their fingers still wet with the voting ink, they responded to a question about how they had cast their votes. "Of course we all voted yes!" exclaimed the mother, Dina, apparently taken aback that there was even a possibility someone might vote no.
"This constitution is better than the one before. I didn’t vote in the referendum last year, but I knew it was my duty this time. It really is much, much better," explained her son, Abdel Aziz, before she interjected: "There is justice here," she said. "There is a future!" Her daughter Noor nodded in approval to what her brother and mother were saying. "We want everything to get better and this is the first step to that. No more fighting, a better economy, some stability," she said.
"Stability" is a promise that seems to come back around during every voting period, and after three years of turmoil, death, coups and changing governments, the offer is more tantalizing now than ever. "The most important thing for Egypt right now is stability," explained off-duty officer Mohamed Abdelmaher outside an Imbaba polling station. "Political stability, economic stability, social stability. Stability is absolutely the cure for all of Egypt’s problems."
He held his young daughter's hand tightly as he talked about the future of his country, repeatedly bringing up the need for stability and security. "I just voted 'yes' in the hope that there's no more of that," he said, pointing to the damaged facade of the courthouse. "God willing this is what the country needs."