Thousands of civilians forced to flee Aleppo are now displaced within their own country. Many are trying to survive in the northwestern town of Azaz.
Islamic State fighters withdrew from frontlines with Syrian rebel forces north of Aleppo on Wednesday as the rebels mounted a counter attack against the jihadist group.
Friday's advance was the biggest by Islamic State in Aleppo province for two years, bringing the jihadists to within 3 miles of Azaz, a town near the border with Turkey through which anti-government insurgents have been supplied.
Tens of thousands are now trapped by the closed border with Turkey, with some reporting being fired on by Turkish border guards while attempting to flee into the neighboring country.
VICE News witnessed chaotic scenes in the Turkish city of Kilis, which has become the first port of call for tens of thousands of fleeing Syrians and injured rebel fighters.
Almost 50 civilians were killed when missiles hit at least five medical facilities and two schools in rebel-held areas of Syria on Monday, and Turkey has blamed Russia.
Rebels say they held off an Islamic State advance near the Turkish border before displaying the heads of dead IS fighters to jubilant residents. (Warning: graphic photos)
Because civil war's about more than just death and maiming.
Two children have already died from the cold in refugee camps.