Focusing on six different Russian airstrikes from September to November this year, Amnesty International has documented scenes of "carnage" and indiscriminate civilian killings.
VICE News speaks with a family of Syrian refugees living in New Jersey to learn their outlook for the future, amidst a period of anti-refugee sentiment in America.
A family of five have been fast-tracked to Perth because the mother is pregnant and will be soon unable to fly.
VICE News filmmaker Medyan Dairieh gained exclusive access to the al Qaeda affiliate this year, spending time with the current leadership and the young generation being groomed to replace them.
Despite Russia's rhetoric, most of the recent attacks by the Syrian army, which is backed by Russian airstrikes and allied fighters from Iran and Lebanon's Hezbollah, have focused on other rebel groups rather than IS.
The Islamic State has used Russian airstrike cover to gain territory, al Qaeda is positioning itself as the best hope of expelling the new foreign invaders, and the Western-backed Free Syrian Army is flirting with a Russian alliance.
As Russian airstrikes continued to pound targets across Syria on Sunday, video footage emerged of volunteer civilian rescuers responding to bombing sites.
Gays in Syria and Iraq are facing brutality from the Islamic State and other factions fighting in the regional conflict.